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They study of abstract computing machines or devices and automata as the computational problems that can solved benefiting them. It is theoretical computer science, under discrete mathematics a section of Mathematics and also of Computer Science.

Automata word comes from the Greek word **αὐτόματα** meaning self-acting.

Automata theory a hierarchy of progressively complex abstract and entirely imaginary machines. Respectively machine takes some input and outputs yes (1) or no (0), in the simplest formulation. Automata theory is the support for the theory of formal languages. A useful treatment of formal language theory starts with some terms definitions:

**SYMBOL:**Symbol is simply a character, an abstraction that is pointless by itself.**ALPHABET:**An alphabet is a finite set of symbols.**WORD:**A word is a finite string of symbols from a given alphabet.**LANGUAGE:**A language is a set of words formed from a given alphabet.

Formal languages are considering like mathematical sets, those can go through the standard set theory treats such as intersection and union. Moreover, operations on languages constantly produce language. So sets, those will be classified and defined operating techniques of automata theory.Formal languages are usually described in three ways that can be defined by automata theory:

**• Regular Expressions**

**• Standard Automata**

**• Formal Grammar System**

**Application of Automata theory in Computer Science**

Automata and Languages are sophisticated and robust concepts those you will discover in computer science. Languages are not exhausted; theory viewpoint extracts apparently complex questions blurred objects about sophisticated, simple statements about trees and words.Formal languages play a role in computer science akin to the structural and game changing aspect took by topology towards classical mathematics and algebra. Every paradigmatic in automata theory uses important purposes in several applied areas.

**Pattern Recognition:**Pattern recognition with its several applications. You want to detect patterns in text, in a series of bug reports and genomic data. These are problems where we are given words from an unknown language and have to guess the language. These are language inference problems. Other applications of pattern recognition techniques are used through automata theory such as classification of text into several categories like spam, non-spam, email messages, the automatic recognition of handwritten codes on postal envelopes; Automatic Recognition of images of human faces, or handwriting image extraction from medical forms, automatic speech recognition and Optical character recognition. To add to the practical edge, Hidden Markov Models are working in Speech recognition programs s as Kurzweil.

**Automated Arithmetic**a lot of applications make Automated Arithmetic reasoning. Assume we fix a logical theory like as Presburger Arithmetic that we have the addition, less-than predicate and the natural numbers. It’s a formula with n variables shows a set of n dimensional vectors; a vector is a series of digits and can be programmed to the same a word. Logical operations such as disjunction, conjunction, union, negation turn into intersection and complement of languages

**XML Documents in Automata**play a significant role in the theoretical foundations of XML data management also in tools for various XML operating tasks such as in XML transformation, processing, navigation, querying and schemas. Specific a set of XML documents, if you need to reverse engineer a schema that relates to those documents. XML documents can be idealized a trees

**Finite Automata (FA)**is used in text compilers, processing and hardware design.**Context-free grammar (CFGs)**is used in programming language also Artificial Intelligence. Automata theory is the development of artificial intelligence. That was developed from the concept of finite Automaton (FA). The neural network of robots is controlled on the basis of automata theory. We can say all robots are also automata.**Cellular Automata:**Cellular automata have wide range of applications with modeling systolic arrays and also are used in the field of biology, the most classic integration of automata theory along with biology field through John Conway’s Game of Life**.**Life is apparently the most often written program in preliminary computer science. The key structure of Life is a two dimensional cellular automation that is given a start state of any number of filled cells.- Compiler design, Compiler specifications. Context free grammars and String matching
- TCP/IP protocol is a finite state machine
- Tool as a awk,sed and grep and regular expressions used in practical projects, like an email server

**Other Applications **

Automata theory also applied various other branches of science similarly engage incredible levels of impossibly large degrees of variation, complexity and apparently random processes, so it creates sense automata theory can provide to a develop scientific understanding of these areas as well. In the modern day innovator of cellular automata applications is Stephen Wolfram, He insists that the entire universe may eventually be perceptible like a machine with finite sets of a single initial condition, states and rules. Who relates automata theory to variety of scientific pursuits including such as Cosmology, Financial analysis, Chaos theory, Snowflake and crystal formation and Fluid Flow.

### Illahi Bux

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